- Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
Uses of TalcTalc
is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
- Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
100+ Gemstones100+ Gems
- Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
Darvaza Gas CraterThe Doorway to Hell
is a flaming sinkhole seeping natural gas that has been burning for decades.
Plate TectonicsPlate Tectonics
- Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
Homeowners InsuranceHomeowners Insurance
might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
- Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Lapis LazuliLapis Lazuli
- a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
Rock SaltRock Salt
is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Google Earth - FreeFree Google Earth
software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
Don*t Go To JailKnow the Rules
before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
Wall MapsWall Maps
- Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
Grape AgateGrape Agate
is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
- The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
- Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
- the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
- Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
Cave of the HandsCave of the Hands
is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
Rocks on MarsRocks on Mars
Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
- The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
Waterproof PaperWaterproof Paper
- Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
Types of MapsTypes of Maps
- Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
Rock and Mineral KitsRock & Mineral Kits
The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Hand LensHand Lens
A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
- Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
- The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Crater of DiamondsCrater of Diamonds
- The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Fire OpalFire Opal
is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
Hardness PicksHardness Picks
- Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
OpalsPictures of Opal
- A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
Geology BooksGeology Books
- A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
- Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Debris FlowsDebris Flows
are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
UV Mineral LampPortable UV Lamp
- Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
Uses of MarbleThe Uses of Marble
are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Bear AttacksBear Attacks
- Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
Gifts That RockGifts That Rock
- What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
is a metal used in coins, electronics, pipes, wiring, motors, alloys and many other products.
Spatter ConesSpatter Cones
are small, steep, volcanic cones built of welded basaltic lava.
look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
is a metamorphic mineral and a strongly pleochroic gem material.
Blue FlamesBlue Flames
and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
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is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Rare Earth ElementsRare Earths
- Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Geology ToolsGeology Tools
- Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
- a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
Field CoursesField Courses
- Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
Fluorescent MineralsFluorescent Minerals
and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
Rock TumblersRock Tumblers
- All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Ruby and SapphireRuby and Sapphire
are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Teacher ResourcesTeacher Resources
- K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
Rock ArtRock Art
- People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Watch out for Ticks!Ticks
are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
Mineral RightsMineral Rights
- Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
Expansive SoilExpansive Soil
causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Tallest TsunamiTallest Tsunami
- A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
Ethiopian OpalEthiopian Opal
- The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
- A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
What Is The Moho?What Is The Moho?
The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
- the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
Mineral HardnessMohs Hardness Scale
is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Crystal HabitCrystal Habit
is the external shape displayed by a crystal or an aggregate of crystals.
is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
Largest HurricanesLargest Hurricanes
Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
Map of the OceansMap of the Oceans
- showing the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Southern Oceans.
Mineral LusterWhat Is Luster?
Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
Mars MeteoritesMars Meteorites
Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Colored DiamondsColored Diamonds
are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
What is Geology?What is Geology?
The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
The Acid TestThe Acid Test
- Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
Ant Hill GarnetsAnt Hill Garnets
- tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Gem SilicaGem Silica
is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
Tallest MountainTallest Mountain
- Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
DeLorme AtlasTopo Maps
- The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
Petrified WoodPetrified Wood
is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Largest VolcanoesLargest Volcano
- That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
June 6th 1912Novarupta
- The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
Pyroxene MineralsPyroxene Minerals
are a group of chain silicate minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Underwater VolcanoHawaii*s Next Island
could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
Phytoplankton BloomsPhytoplankton Blooms
are caused by an explosive growth rate of plankton in surface waters.
- an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
Cinder ConesCinder Cones
are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.
- The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
US Diamond MinesUS Diamond Mines
- Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Herkimer DiamondsHerkimer Diamonds
Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
What is a Maar?What is a Maar?
The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
What is a Geyser?What is a Geyser?
Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
Lightning Strikes MapLightning Strikes Map
by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
Volcanic ExplosivityVolcanic Explosivity
- Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
- The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
- Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
- A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Storm SurgeStorm Surge
can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
Utica ShaleUtica Shale
is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
Tallest WaterfallAngel Falls
in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
American GemstonesMined in America
- Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
Mount EtnaMount Etna
- The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
Mount VesuviusMount Vesuvius
- geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.